Turmeric contains curcuminoids which are thought to be the active ingredient in Turmeric. Turmeric is insoluble in water, and curcumin is not recognised by the liver, making turmeric limited biological availablility. Dr Doug developed the Golden Paste, where he combined turmeric with an oil (olive or coconut), heated this mixture and added ground black pepper. Turmeric is soluble in oil, and so mixing with oil assists transport across the intestinal wall. Coconut oil is preferred because unlike all other oils it is absorbed directly into the portal blood, Black pepper prevents the excretion of compounds such as curcumin by the liver.